# How To Calculate Expected Agreement

Cohens coefficient Kappa () is a statistic used to measure reliability between advisors (and also the reliability of inter-raters) for qualitative (categorical) elements. [1] It is generally accepted that this is a more robust indicator than a simple percentage of the agreement calculation, since the possibility of a random agreement is taken into account. There are controversies around Cohens Kappa because of the difficulty of interpreting the indications of the agreement. Some researchers have suggested that it is easier, conceptually, to assess differences of opinion between objects. [2] For more details, see Restrictions. Landis, J. R., Koch, G. G. (1977).

The measure of the compliance agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174 of which k `number of codes and w i `displaystyle w_`ij`, x i `displaystyle x_`ij`, and m i j`displaystyle m_ `ij` elements in the weighting are observed and expected. If the diagonal cells contain weights of 0 and all out diagonal weights of 1, this formula produces the same Kappa value as the calculation shown above. As explained in the previous article, a method of analyzing qualitative data is the development of a codebook containing all kinds of codes that the spleens could use. However, it is important to know how much your advisors have agreed on the codes they have assigned to the data to determine whether differences of opinion are due to conceptual differences in what the codes mean or from subjective differences. This type of disagreement could mean that the qualitative coding process is not robust or that programmers have not applied it in the same way and could affect the quality of the research data. This is why it is important to calculate THE ERREURS in order to understand the degree of divergence between the seats for a set of qualitative data [1]. where in is the relative correspondence observed between advisors (identical to accuracy), and pe is the hypothetical probability of a random agreement, the observed data being used to calculate the probabilities of each observer who sees each category at random. If the advisors are in complete agreement, it`s the option ” 1″ “textstyle” “kappa – 1.”